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        美国历届总统简介:第5任总统 詹姆斯门罗

        时间:2020-08-13 12:49:38
        James Monroe was born in Virginia in 1758. He was America's fifth President and the last who was a Founding Father of the U.S.A. He inherited his father's plantation and fortune when he was 16. In 1776 Monroe dropped out of college to join the Army. He returned to academic life from 1780 to 1783 to study law under Thomas Jefferson. He felt a legal career would offer him "the most immediate rewards".

        詹姆斯·门罗于1758年出生在弗吉尼亚州。他是美国第五任总统,同时也是美国最后一位开国元勋。他16岁时继承了父亲的农场和财富。1776年,门罗辍学从军。1780年至1783年,他又重返学术生活,在托马斯·杰斐逊的门下学习法律。他认为律师职业能给予他“最直接的回报”。

        In 1782, Monroe was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates and served in the Continental Congress between 1783 and 1786. As a youthful politician, he joined the anti-Federalists in the Virginia Convention which ratified the Constitution. In 1790, he was elected as a United States Senator. He served as Minister to France from 1794 to 1796 and helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase.

        1782年,门罗被选为弗吉尼亚州众议院代表,1783年至1786年,他任职于美国大陆会议。在弗吉尼亚州大会上,他加入了反联邦党人一派,当时他还是位年轻的政治家。1790年,他被选为美国参议员。1794年至1796年,他担任驻法公使,并协助谈判路易斯安那购买案。

        His ambition and energy, together with the backing of President Madison, made him the Republican choice for the Presidency in 1816 and he was easily elected with little opposition. The Federalist opposition collapsed in disarray towards the end of his first term in office and he won re-election unopposed in 1820 for a second term as President.

        他的野心、精力,以及麦迪逊总统的支持,使他成为了1816年共和党总统的首选。后来,他以绝对优势当选为美国总统。在他的第一个任期即将结束时,联邦反对党陷入了一片混乱。1820年,他又以极大优势获得美国总统的连任。

        Monroe made strong Cabinet choices, naming a Southerner, John C. Calhoun, as Secretary of War, and a northerner, John Quincy Adams, as Secretary of State. In 1823 Monroe introduced a policy warning against European intervention in the Americas. Twenty years after he died in 1831, this became known as the Monroe Doctrine. It is still used by modern-day presidents.

        门罗组建了一个强有力的内阁班子,他任命南方人约翰·卡德威尔·卡尔霍恩为美国战争部长,北方人约翰·昆西·亚当斯为美国国务卿。1823年,门罗发出政治警告,反对欧洲干涉美洲事务。门罗去世(1831年)20年后,这个政治警告被称为“门罗主义”。至今,“门罗主义”依然是美国总统的指南。
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